Tuesday, June 12, 2007

Poets and Scholars: The Challenge of Sakkwato Models

Introduction

This article is going to start with a brief of my personal journey of discovery about the poets and scholars of the Sakkwato Caliphate. The first time I read about Sakkwato Caliphate was when I was in primary school from a book titled Karamin Sani. There was a passage on the battle at Tafkin Kwatto culled from Infaku of Caliph Muhammadu Bello. At that time I could not appreciate the story for there is no prior basis for that. Secondly, although I heard about Shehu Usmanu Danfodiyo and I heard over and over again my grandma sing Begore a poem by Nana Asma’u and also heard about Hubbare in Sakkwato. I have no picture of what Sakkwato Caliphate was. The situation has not improved even when I went to secondary school. I was a good student of history in my forms 1 and 2 and I learnt about Mali, Ghana, and Songhai empires but not about Sakkwato. After two years I went to science school, thus cut off from history.

What actually helped me was the bookworming attitude that I developed that I always read and read any book of interest from Astronomy to Egyptology. By the time I completed my secondary education and got admission into the then University of Sokoto, I luckily came across a book titled The Sakkwato Model by Usmanu Bugaje, that was the beginning of my voyage in the vast ocean of scholarship about Sakkwato. After reading that book I begin to be thirsty of more knowledge about the history of that Great State. From then on, I began to feel that University of Sokoto should be renamed to Usmanu Danfodiyo University. I even wrote a letter to the Editor (New Nigerian) but never posted it, yet whenever I wrote to my friends, my address is always Usmanu Danfodiyo University not University of Sokoto. Within few years that dream came true.

With time, I learnt from seminars and few publications more about Sakkwato, and when I decided to register for courses in Hausa (as the only Social Science Student in the class), I was taught about some poems written by the Jihad leaders. I was taught about the literal interpretation of poems like Godaben Gaskiya, Ma’amare and Tabban Hakika among others, but I could actually not appreciate it as much. My interest at that moment was fiction and not poetry. Later I read Studies in Sokoto Caliphate edited by YB Usmanu. I then got and read State and Society in Sokoto Caliphate edited by Kabir Gandi and Ahmad Kani. I also read Sokoto Caliphate by Murray Last. But the two books that actually influenced me most were A Revolution in History and Islamic State and the Challenge of History by Ibrahim Sulaiman. All these books taught me more about what and how the Caliphate came into existence, how it declined and what we are to learn from it.

One important missing link is that although I read fairly well about the Jihad, the leader of the Jihad and Caliph Muhammadu Bello and a little on Shaikh Abdullahi Fodio (from Shehu Umar’s classic work) there is little about Nana Asma’u. I know about Nana Asma’u ‘Yar Shehu first from my grand mother. With the passage of time I began to develop some interest about who Nana Asma’u really was, what were her contributions to the Jihad and so on. But above all I wanted to learn about her “Yan Taru movement, I first heard in a seminar at UDUS. It was from the knowledge of the 'Yan Taru movement that I was able to appreciate and situate Wakar Ahmada my grand mother’s favourite. It was also with that background knowledge that I came to understand more about my grandfather’s sister Hauwa who though I met (before her death) but was too young to appreciate her learning. Gwaggo, my dad always tells us was a pious and learned woman who taught women about Islam, in fact my grandma learnt Wakar Ahmada and other aspects of knowledge from her. Perhaps she was a Jaji (a cadre of literate, itinerant women teachers within the ‘Yan Taru movement, who disseminated Asma’u’s instructive poetic works among the masses).

I visited Hubbare for the first time in 1996, I knew about Jean Boyd but I am yet to know about Nana Asma’u. When Caliph’s Sister (by Jean Boyd) was published in 1989, I saw its review, but there was no way I could get that book at the time. So I remained ignorant about Nana Asma’u, a woman I admire even before I know who she actually was.

The opportunity of coming to the United States came to me through the Fulbright Fellowship in August 2001. I met Dr. Sarki Abba Abdulkadir (who works at the same University I am doing my fellowship) In our long discussion about the problems of our society, we discovered that we share same interest about the model of Sakkwato Caliphate. He showed me a book titled Collected Works of Nana Asma’u Daughter of Usmanu ‘dan Fodiyo (1793-1864) compiled and edited by Jean Boyd and Beverly B Mack. I then remember seeing a copy at the ABU bookshop but at the time I could not afford it. I then went into action, trying to see if I could get and buy that book online, I got it and I bought it. But most interestingly, I got Caliph’s Sister and One Woman Jihad (Boyd & Mack). From these triad I learn about Nana Asma’u. In fact I learnt about Sakkwato Jihad of 1804 more. After reading these books I then realised how much I personally learnt but how much many other people are missing by not knowing all that happened in our pre-colonial past.

The Challenge

Now I realised that what I learnt so far about Sakkwato Caliphate is enormous but also a challenge. I asked myself beside the very thin and narrow folkloric knowledge available to the ordinary man in the street, how many people in the current area once Sakkwato Caliphate actually know about this great Islamic revivalism? How many people realised that we in the 21st century have a lot to learn from the 1804 revolution? How many of us read the books written by the Jihad leaders? How many people can situate the re-introduction of the Shari’a legal system within a wider social-history context in northern Nigeria? Above all what does Shari’a really stands for, for the Muslim ummah?

The answer without fear of contradiction is very little. Most of the published knowledge about Sakkwato Caliphate is in the English Language, thanks to the late Professor Abdullahi Smith who initiated the reconstruction of our historiography. Few of the Jihad books were publish in Hausa (Infaku and Nurul-al-bab for example) the language majority can read and appreciate, even those few books published are not in circulation.

After working for years to create a body of Hausa readers through the Hausa Literary Movement (erstwhile known as Soyayya writers). I now fully agree with one of the leaders (Sunusi Shehu Daneji) of the movement’s assertion that people should stop discouraging the movement. This is because, as he puts it “when you develop some one’s reading habit, it is easier to educate him’. Thus, a Hausa housewife who learn to read in Hausa roman script just to read a love story for instance, would also read a book by or about Nana Asma’u written in Hausa language. Jean Boyd and Beverly Mack described Nana Asma’u’s genius as laying “in transforming the women’s organization that had existed among the non-Muslim women prior to their capture, and channeling their interests and needs into organizing representative of the Jihadic community’s values. Through her organization of itinerant women teachers of other women (the ‘Yan Taru…) Nana Asma’u made working for the community both desirable and honorable” (Collected Works.pp7). Don’t we think that the failed Better Life, Family Support and Poverty Alleviation programmes would have been successful (at least in Muslim north) if based on the framework of the ‘Yan Taru Movement? The Islamic knowledge revivalism through Islamiyya schools for women has more to learn from Nana’s model.

We can see how easily a book on any aspect of Islam sells. Go to any Hausa books centre and you will see how books and pamphlets-some genuine some not- are being bought and read, people are today hungry of Islamic knowledge. In fact religious books sell more than fiction ones (an organised study on Kasuwar Kurmi Islamic book distribution system is yet to be undertaken by our revered Hausa scholars) but majority of the readers were initially ‘fiction readers’.

We could not accuse scholars of not translating Jihad leader’s books, Malam Isa Talatar Mafara has translated a corpus of books by Usmanu Danfodiyo and other Jihad leaders and most were published by the History Bureau Sokoto, but where are they today? They are not in circulation. There are also another corpus translated by Alkali Sidi Suyudi between 1976-80 but remain unpublished decade or decades after. Below are some examples from Boyd and Mack bibliography:

Title
Author
Date of translation
al-Tibyan li-huquq al-ikhwan
Abdullahi Danfodiyo
circa 1976-80
Siyar
Abdullahi Danfodiyo
circa 1976-80
Diya’ al qawa’id wa nathr al fawa’id li-ahl al maqasid
Abdullahi Danfodiyo
circa 1976-80
Kitab al-nasab
Abdullahi Danfodiyo
circa 1976-80
Lubab al-mudkhal fi adab ahl al-din
Abdullahi Danfodiyo
circa 1976-80
al-Ghaith al-wabl fi sirat al imam al-adl
Muhammad Bello
circa 1976-80
Kitab al Nasiha
Muhammad Bello
circa 1976-80
Raudat al-afkar
Abdulkadir B Mustafa/
circa 1976-80
Wasiyya
Gidado Dan Laima
circa 1976-80
Raud al-jinan
Gidado Dan Laima
circa 1976-80


Source: (Boyd & Mack 1997)
The list above is just a tip of the iceberg and contains mainly books, i.e. not to talk of poems majority of which are towards teaching of the Islamic knowledge and mobilisation. School children are supposed to be taught about The Sakkwato Model (apology to Bugaje). It is a shame that my children could sing ‘Wakar Sangaya” but could not sing Wakar Ahmada. Not because it is not available, but because I didn’t pay attention until recently. I struggled to get Mazan Jiya a book that contains some briefs about Hausa City-states and the Caliphate. I organised my children and younger brothers and sisters, to read the book in group and I am happy that the little they learnt has introduced them to the superiority of civilisation of the Caliphate. We need to produce more and more works at children, adult and scholars level in Hausa about the Sakkwato Jihad. There is so much ignorance among the population about these great scholars and their works.

By making such materials available our children and we would be able to appreciate our past but also prepare us towards ensuring a just society. The issue of Shari’a is a misunderstood case because majority of people (including Muslims) are not knowledgeable about what Shari’a entails. Many people erroneously restrict Shari’a to hudud only. Shari’a is beyond courts and cutting hands, stoning the adulterer and lashing the drunkard. The goal of the Shari’a is about developing a just, prosperous and peaceful society. The example of the Islamic State under Muhammad Bello as reported by Clapperton during his visit to Sokoto in 1826 is worth sharing:

"The Laws of the Qur’an in his (Sultan Muhammad Bello’s) time, were so strictly put in the forth . . . that the whole country, when not in war, was so well regulated that it is common saying that a woman might travel with casket of gold upon her head from one end of the Fellata (Fulani) dominions to the other." (Emphasis mine)

This is what is expected of the Shari’a system, bulk of the supporters of Shari’a in the so-called Sharia’a States are the masses who are looking for a just system that can improve their lives. It is therefore a challenge for those States that re-introduced the Shari’a to be courageous enough to educate people about the goals of the system but also exemplify it by being just and keeping trust.

Some people have contributed a great deal to the cause of propagating the Jihad ideals. A film producer (for instance) by name Alhaji Ganyama (now Hon. member, National assembly) has in conjunction with the Sokoto State Government, produced an excellent movie on the life and times of Usman Danfodiyo, some years before the civilians took over power. The movie titled Nurul Zaman is however still not released for whatever reasons. With these types of movies that could bring about social change kept away from the public, one wonders what Sokoto policy makers are thinking about. We actually need individuals, foundations and authorities to encourage and help to produce more historical films like the life and times of Caliph Muhammadu Bello, Shaikh Abdullahi Fodiyo, Nana Asma’u, Caliph Attahiru I and other most recent exemplary leaders. These movies would be a great way of mobilising the sick society we today live in. with books and movies; we can have a transformation of attitudes and become a better society.

It is therefore high time for us to look back and learn, the Hausas are saying Waiwaye adon tafiya.

Monday, June 11, 2007

MEDIA IN NORTHERN NIGERIA

Introduction

Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa and one of the largest in terms of size. Church (1979). It came into existence in 1914 when the British colonialists amalgamated the then northern and southern protectorates. The northern protectorate falls within the domain of the Sokoto Caliphate, which fell to the British invaders in 1903. The Hausas, Fulani, and Kanuri are the larger ethnic groups. Islam is the predominant religion and Hausa language is the lingua franca in the region. Other important ethnic groups include the Nupes, Tivs, Angas, Jukuns, and Egbiras mainly in what is now known and called middle-belt of Nigeria. The major cities in northern Nigeria includes Kano, Katsina, Sokoto, Kaduna, Zaria, Gusau, Talata-Mafara, Maiduguri, Gombe, Bauchi, Funtua, Potiskum, Hadejia, Nguru, Argungu, Birnin Kebbi, Daura and Azare.

The major occupation of the northern population is farming, although Kano is a major commercial center, the largest inland port south of the Sahara. Industrial activities are also prominent in Kano and Kaduna axis. There are a good number of educational institutions notably the Universities, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Bayero University, Kano, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto, University of Maiduguri, University of Jos, University of Agriculture Makurdi, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University of Technology Bauchi, University of Technology Yola and a host of others.

Northern Nigeria has been literate for the last seven hundred years after the invention of Ajami (the use of Arabic script to write Hausa language). It is however behind southern Nigeria in western education which came to it late and was not popular for a number of reasons, which we are not going to discuss here. This may partly explain why the north is lagging behind in terms of the print media in particular.

Print Media in Northern Nigeria: Historical Background.

No newspaper or news magazine existed in northern Nigeria before the occupation and subsequent colonization of the region by the British imperial force despite its literacy British colonial rulers introduced a trilingual newspaper around 1932 called Northern Provinces News/Jaridar Nigeria Ta Arewa. /Jaridat al Nijeriya al Shimaliyya. It was 22 pages and published four times a year and sold at half a penny (sisi). (Yahaya, 1988). This newspaper or rather a periodical reports mainly new colonial policies and news items about colonial administration activities.

In January 1939, a full-pledge Hausa newspaper Gaskiya Ta Fi Kwabo was established. Its first editor was the famous Hausa writer, the late Malam Abubakar Imam. A number of reasons were forwarded as the factors that led to the establishment of Gaskiya Ta Fi Kwabo. Yahaya (1988) argued that the Second World War was partly responsible as the British feared German and other propaganda through the radio and other means. While Best, (1996) see the struggle between northerners and southerners in the political struggle in Nigeria and the letters misrepresentation of the former as partly responsible. Whatever the case Yahaya (1988) explained that Gaskiya Ta Fi Kwabo was intended to be distributed to all northern provinces and serve as enlightenment medium and opinion moulder. It reported local, national and international news to its readers.

Around 1941, full-out sheets in Ajami form of written Hausa were introduced for those who could not read in the Roman Script. It was called `Yar Gaskiya (Ajami News Sheets). Suda another Hausa newspaper hit the stand in 1941. It was more or less a war propaganda newspaper and was published once every two weeks. (Yahaya, 1988) 15,000 copies were produced and distributed free of charge to all areas where Gaskiya Ta Fi Kwabo. was distributed and sold.

In 1954, the North Regional Literature Agency (NORLA) was established. Consequently, in addition to Gaskiya Ta Fi Kwabo, some provincial newspapers were established as shown in table 1 below.

Table 1
-------------------------------------------------------------------
Newspaper Province Language
------------------------------------------------------------------
Zaruma Sokoto Hausa
Himma Katsina Hausa
Gamzaki Plateau Hausa
Zumunta Bauchi Hausa
Bazazzaga Zaria Hausa
Haske Niger Hausa
Ardo Adamawa Hausa/Fulfulde
AlBishir Borno Hausa/Kanuri
Labaran Kano/Sodangi Kano Hausa
-------------------------------------------------------------------
Source: Yahaya, I.Y. (1988)

All these newspapers were published twice every month. Other papers published at that time include Alfijir (mainly a Hausa version of The World), Jakadiya, Aboki, and Majalisarku.

Newspapers and News Magazines in Northern Nigeria After NORLA

NORLA was subsequently closed down in 1959. Only Gaskiya Ta Fi Kwabo, survived. However a number of other Hausa and English newspapers and magazine emerged. Some are owned by State, Regional or Federal governments while others were privately owned. The Nigerian Citizen was started around 1960 and was replaced in 1965, by the New Nigerian Newspapers.

Some of the papers that emerged included Daily Mail, Morning Post, Sunday Post, Maganar Kano, `Yancin Dan Adam, Amana, Maishela, Albishir, Alfijir, Zuma, Zaruma, Dillaliya, Bagaruwa, Jakadiyar Muslunci, Jakadiyar UNESCO, Sha Kallo, Daily Comet, Alkalami, Fitila, The Analyst, Triumph, Sunday Triumph, Zamani, The Nigerian Standard, The Voice, The Path, Trumpeter, The Democrat, Citizens, Nasiha, A Yau, Al-Mizan, Al-Ahram, Today, Weekly Trust, Just, Hotline, Rana, Telex, Kakaki, The Pointer, Al-Tajdid, Abuja newsweek, Nigerian Outlook, The Reporter, Mujahidah, The Pen, FIM, Tauraruwa, Taskira, Lokaci and many others. Most of these newspapers and magazine have ceased to exist.

In table 2 below, we indicate the newspapers that exist today, their language, place of publication and ownership.
Paper
Language
Place
Ownership
Frequency
Category
New Nigerian
English
Kaduna
Federal Government
Daily
News
New Nigerian Weekly
English
Kaduna
Federal Government
Weekly
News
New Nigerian On Sunday
English
Kaduna
Federal Government
Weekly
News
Gaskiya Ta Fi Kwabo
Hausa
Kaduna
Federal Government
Three times a week
News
The Triumph
English
Kano
Kano State Government
Daily
News
Weekend Triumph
English
Kano
Kano State Government
Weekly
News
Sunday Triumph
English
Kano
Kano State Government
Weekly
News
Albishir
Hausa
Kano
Kano State Government
Weekly
News
Alfijir
Hausa/Ajami
Kano
Kano State Government
Weekly
News
The Path
English
Sokoto
Sokoto State Government
Weekly
News
The Nigerian Standard
English
Jos
Plateau State Government

News
The Voice
English
Makurdi
Benue State Government

News
The Graphics
English
Lokoja
Kogi State Government

News
Legacy
English
Gusau
Private
Weekly
News
Nassarawa Newsday
English
Gombe
Private

News
Weekly Scope
English
Yola
Private?

News
Today
English
Kaduna
Private

News
A Yau
Hausa
Kaduna
Private
Weekly
News
Al-Ahram
Hausa
Kano
Private
Weekly
News
Weekly Trust
English
Abuja
Private
Weekly
News
Al-Mizan
Hausa
Zaria
Private
Weekly
News/Religious
Al-Tajdid
Hausa
Kano
Private
Weekly
News/Religious
Kakaki
Hausa
Bauchi
Bauchi State Government
Weekly
News
The Pointer
English
Zaria
Private
Weekly
News/Religious
The Herald
English
Ilorin
Kwara State Government
Daily
News
Source: Various



Table 3 gives a list of some magazines

Magazine
Language
Place
Ownership
Frequency
Category
Hotline
English
Kaduna
Private
Monthly
News
Crystal
English
Abuja
Private
Monthly
News
Just
English
Kaduna
Private

News
Nigerian Outlook
English
Kano
Private
Weekly
News
Rana
Hausa
Kaduna
Private
Monthly
News
Abuja Newsweek
English
Kaduna
Private
Monthly
News
FIM
Hausa
Kaduna
Private
Quarterly
Entertainment
Tauraruwa
Hausa
Kano
Private
Quarterly
Entertainment
Zuma
Hausa
Zaria
Private

News
Mujahida
Hausa
Zaria
Private
Monthly
New/Religious
Garkuwa
Hausa
Sokoto
Private
Quarterly
News/Entertainment
Mumtaz
Hausa
Kano
Private
Quarterly
News/Entertainment
Nishadi
Hausa
Kano
Private

Entertainment
Some major existing Hausa Newspapers and Magazines
Table 4







Newspapers

Newspaper Frequency

Gaskiya Ta Fi Kwabo Three time a week
A Yau Weekly
Al-Ahram Weekly
Albishir Weekly
Alfijir Weekly
Al-Mizan Weekly
Garkuwa Weekly
Dillaliya Weekly
Jagora Weekly

Table 5
Magazines
Newspaper Frequency
FIM Quarterly
Rana Monthly
Tauraruwa Quarterly
Zuma Monthly
Garkuwa Monthly
Mumtaz Quarterly
Nishadi Quarterly
Shirin Fim Quarterly



Broadcast Media in the northern Nigeria
Broadcasting in Nigeria started as far back as 1924 Kolade (1979). By 1944 broadcasting stations were established in Kano and six years after stations were opened at some towns in northern Nigeria, which are Katsina, Zaria, Sokoto, Jos, and Ilorin. Ladele (1979). By 1957 Nigerian Broadcasting Corporation was established. It replaced its predecessor which lasted for six years.

After independence and its aftermath, several radio and television stations were established by the then State Governments. By 1977 all the Television stations in the states (both north and South) were taken over by the Federal Military Government under General Obasanjo to form the National Television Authority (NTA).

For the northern region, the establishment of Northern Nigeria Broadcasting Corporation with its headquarters in Kaduna in 1962 gave birth to a more serious and sustainable broadcasting service. Thus Radio Television Kaduna was born. Radio Television Kaduna was latter to be Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria Kaduna (being one of the four- Lagos, Ibadan and Enugu).

The birth of Radio Nigeria Kaduna pioneered radio broadcast in northern Nigeria. The station has millions of listeners and it is effectively used by the State and other vested interest. It is the major Hausa radiobroadcast station in the world. Its broadcast is mainly in Hausa with some insert of programmes in Fulfulde, Kanuri, and English. It has a very big and rich audio library and has greatly influenced and still influencing happenings in northern Nigeria and other Hausa speaking areas of West Africa.
The National Broadcasting Commission

The National Broadcasting Commission (NBC) is the nation’s body that regulate and monitor the broadcast media. It was established in 1992 by decree 38 of 1992 as amended by decree 55 of 1999. It is empowered among other things to regulate, monitor and control broadcasting in Nigeria. It is also responsible for issuing licenses for the establishment of all broadcast outfits in the country. It has seven zonal offices four of which fall within northern Nigeria. Thus we have

Abuja Zone comprising of The Federal capital territory, Kaduna, Kogi, Kwara and Niger States.

Kano Zone comprising of Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Sokoto and Zamfara States

Jos Zone comprising of Plateau, Nassarawa, Adamawa, Taraba, and Benue States.

Then

Maiduguri Zone comprising of Borno, Yobe, Bauchi, Jigawa and Gombe States.

Based on this zonal classification we will provide the distribution of Radio, Television and Cables Satellite stations in the north.

Zonal Distribution of Radio Stations by ownership

Table 6
---------------------------------------------------------
Zone Ownership Number
---------------------------------------------------------

Kano Federal 0
State 6
Private 0
Abuja Federal 2
State 6
Private 1
Jos Federal 0
State 8
Private 0
Maiduguri Federal 0
State 6
Private 0
Total
-------------------------------------------------------------------
Source: Monitoring & Operation Directorate 1999

Zonal Distribution Television Stations by Ownership
Table 7

---------------------------------------------------------------------
Zone Ownership Number
--------------------------------------------------------------------
Kano Federal 3
State 3
Private 0
Abuja Federal 5
State 2
Private 1
Jos Federal 5
State 4
Private 0
Maiduguri Federal 2
State 4
Private 0
Total
-------------------------------------------------------------------
Source: Monitoring & Operation Directorate 1999


Zonal Distribution of Cable Stations

Table 8

Zone Number
----------------------------------
Kano 5
Abuja 4
Jos 3
Maiduguri 3
------------------------------------
Total
--------------------------------------
Source: Monitoring & Operation Directorate 1999







Broadcast hours

Table 9
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Zone Daily Hours Weekly Channels
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kano Radio- 94 658 39
Television 45 241
Cable 120 648

Abuja Radio 122 856 22
Television 61.30 502.30
Cable 144 1008
Jos Radio 124.34 830.58 26
Television 44 142
Cable 264 1848

Maiduguri Radio 102.30 719.30 21
Television 34.30 259
Cable 216 1512
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total
Source: Monitoring & Operation Directorate 1999



There are 39 cable stations in Nigeria, all of which are privately owned.


Sample Programmes Coverage
A number of programmes are aired in the Radio and Television Stations most of which are government oriented. Among the common programmes aired are
Local News
National/International News
Drama
Greetings
Documentary
Discussions
Interviews
Children Programmes
Political Programmes
Women Programmes
Youth Programmes
Arts and Literature
Agricultural Extension
Health Matters
Enlightenment Programmes
Public Announcements
Advertisement

List of Some Radio Stations where Hausa Broadcast is over 70% of the airtime
Table 10

Station
Location
Ownership
Radio Kano
Kano
Kano State Government
Radio Zamfara
Gusau
Zamfara State Government
Radio Jigawa
Dutse
Jigawa State Government
Rima Radio
Sokoto
Sokoto State Government
Radio-Nigeria Kaduna
Kaduna
Federal Government
Kaduna State Radio
Kaduna
Kaduna State Government
Radio Katsina
Katsina
Katsina State Government
Radio Bauchi
Bauchi
Bauchi State Government

Radio Nassarawa
Gombe
Nassarawa State Government

Yobe Radio
Damaturu
Yobe State Government
Source: VariousTelevision Stations

Table 11
Some T.V. Houses with Hausa Programmes

Station
Location
Ownership
NTA Kano
Kano
Federal
CTV Kano
Kano
State
NTA Sokoto
Sokoto
Federal
NTA Maiduguri
Maiduguri
Federal
NTA Kaduna
Kaduna
Federal
DTV Kaduna
Kaduna
Private
NTA Katsina
Katsina
Federal
KTTV Katsina
Katsina
State
NTA Bauchi
Bauchi
Federal
NTA Yola
Yola
Federal




Source: Various

International Hausa Broadcast
Hausa people are naturally good listeners, thus they enjoy and patronise radio stations, locally, nationally and internationally. It can be conveniently argued that radio information is the major source of information among Hausa populace particularly those that are not literate or semi-literate. The radio has over the years provided all the necessary news Hausa people need. In fact, radio has greatly improved Hausa people knowledge on current affairs that a common man in Hausa society can comment on international affairs. Thus International Broadcast in Hausa is crucial in socio-political mobilisation of the largest language group in West Africa. Below in table 12 is a list of some international Hausa Broadcast Stations.


Table 12
LIST OF SOME INTERNATIONAL HAUSA BROADCASTS STATIONS
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Station Country of Broadcast
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Sashen Hausa
BBC London
Bush House London. UNITED KINGDOM

Sashen Hausa
Muryar Jama’ar Jamus
Duetch Velle
Federal Republic of Germany FED. REPUBLIC OF GERMANY

Sashen Hausa
Voice of America
Washington DC UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

Sashen Hausa
Radio Beijing International
Beijing
China PEOPLES REPUBLIC OF CHINA

Sashen Hausa
Radio Alkahira
Cairo
Egypt. ARAB REPUBLIC OF EGYPT


Sashen Hausa
Radio Tehran
Islamic Republic of Iran
Iran ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF IRAN

Sashen Hausa
*Radio Ghana
Accra
Ghana REPUBLIC OF GHANA


Voice of Nigeria
Abuja
Nigeria. FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF NIGERIA

*Radio Niger
Niger Republic
Niger. REPUBLIC DU NIGER

Sashen Hausa
Radio Moscow
Moscow
Russia** RUSSIAN REPUBLIC
Source: Various

*Not sure of the name
** I think it is no longer in operation

Hausa Home Videos

The history of Hausa home videos can be traced to the earlier efforts by some individuals notably Sani Lamma, Hamisu Gurgu, Sidiya Bakar Indiya in the early 1980s in Kano (Mandawari, 1999). These individuals were avid views of cinema programmes particularly Indian and Western movies. They personally made earlier attempts to produce home videos (not for sale). In the mid 1980s some drama clubs that have been active at stage drama began to think of producing home videos. These drama groups were also active in Television Soap opera. Some of their dramas were produced and aired by Nigerian Television Authority Kano and CTV 67 (The State owned Television Station). They include:

Tumbin Giwa Drama Group
Gyaranya Drama Group
Jigon Hausa Drama Group
In 1990, Ibrahim Mandawari then president of Tumbin Giwa Drama Group was encouraged and supported by some of his members notably Auwalu Marshall, Aminu Hassan Yakasai and Adamu Mohammed to produce a home video. Consequently they produced a two-hour video programme titled TURMIN DANYA. In 1992, they produced another television opera titled CIN AMANA. This programme was aired at the Katsina State Television in thirty episodes. It was until 1993 that Tumbin Giwa made its debut with the production of GIMBIYA FATIMA (3 tapes). Jigon Hausa followed suite with MUNKAR in the same year.

Around the same period some individuals made efforts and made the first independent home video production. These pioneers are Ado Ahmad Gidan Dabino (IN DA SO DA KAUNA- adapted from his best selling Hausa novel), Bala Anas Babinlata (TSUNTSU MAI WAYO- also from his Hausa novel with same title). Consequently, individual producers began to emerge producing one video film after another. It was from 1998 that the home video business in Kano became well established that today it has produced celebrities. Hausa home videos are past replacing Indian, American and Nigerian (English home videos). Moreover, cinemas are also affected by this surge that most of the cinemas today show Hausa home Videos to their customers. Today, an average of three home videos are released every month.
The themes of these home videos range from romance, marriage, family life, crime, social problems, corruption, and some politics. The films use modern and traditional instruments for their music (perhaps to replace those missed from Indian films).

One thing of note here is that Kano home video industry is an off short of its popular literature movement. Most of the earlier home videos were adaptations of earlier novels (example In Da So Da kauna. Tsuntsu Mai Wayo, Ki Yarda da Ni, Muguwar Kishiya, Bakandamiyar Rikicin Duniya, Kwabon masoyi, Su ma `ya`ya ne, Kara da kiyashi, Sa’adatu sa’ar mata, and so on.) Some of the producers and directors are also writers, examples are Ado Ahmad Gidan Dabino, Bala Anas Babin lata, Dan’azimi Baba, Aminu Hassan Yakasai, Adamu Muhammed, and so on).

Just as the popular books raise many social questions and controversies, the home videos are also doing the same. The industry is dominated by youth so the level of modernization is great. This new trend is a fertile area of research.

Hausa home video industry has also sprung in other major cities of northern Nigeria notably, Kaduna, Katsina, Gusau, Sokoto, Zaria, and Gombe). Yet Kano leads the industry and is seen by many as the northern Nigerian Hollywood christened Kallywood. The industry has led to the emergence of entertainment magazines notable FIM magazine published in Kaduna and Tauraruwa published in Kano. There are indications that some new magazines covering the home video industry are likely to emerge in Sokoto, Kano and Kaduna. The industry is employing a large number of youth.

Name and Addresses of the major home videos producers in Kano

Ado Ahmad Gidan Dabino
Gidan Dabino Video Productions
570, Sabon Titin Mandawari
Kano.
Tel: 064-636339

Ibrahim Muhammad Mandawari
Mandawari Enterprises
Ibrahim Taiwo Road
Kano
Tel: 064-640310

Adamu Muhammad
Kwabon Masoyi Productions
Gidan Umma Bayero
Kano.

Dan-azimi Baba Cediyar `Yangurasa
R.K. Studios
14, Sabon Titin Mandawari
Kano.

Abdulkarim Muhammad
FILAPS
Court Road
Kano.

Inuwa Hassan
Mu’azzart International
`Yankaba Quarters
Kano.

Umar Bawa Dukku
Dukku Productions
No. 3 Dandago Quarters
Kano-City.
Tel: 064-635071

Hamisu Lamido
Iyan Tama Multi-Media
44, Sabon Titin Mandawari
Kano.
Tel: 064-632280

Auwal Muhammad Sabo
Sarauniya Production
Gwammaja Quarters,
Kano.

Mansur Sherif Abba
Ibrahimawa Productions
485, Dandago Quarters
Kano.

Aminu Sherif
Ummi Productions
`Yankaba Quarters
Kano.

Hajin Fafa
Hajin Fafa Ventures
Gidan Atiku
Sabon Titin Mandawari
Kano.

Kabiru Na-kwango
Dabo Film Production
Gwammaja Quarters
Kano.


List of Cinemas in Kano Metropolis

El-Dorado Cinema
Farida Cinema
Lale Cinema
Marhaba Cinema
Orion Cinema
Plaza Cinema
Queens Cinema
Sani Abacha Youth Centre Cinema.
Wapa Cinema


List of major home video distributors

Alhaji Hassan Adamu
Bayan Bata
Kano.

Isma’il Idris
Bayan Bata
Kano.

Alhaji Musa Mai Kaset
Malam Kato Square
Kano.

Muhammad Lawan Kalarawi
Sabuwar Kasuwa
Kofar Wambai
Kano.

Alhaji Mustapha Muhammad
Club Road
Kano.

Danlami Sani
KRODA
Kano.


REFERENCES

Yahaya, I.Y. (1988) Hausa A Rubuce, Northern Nigeria Publishing Company, Zaria

Best, C. (1996) Press Development in Nigeria, A Comparative Analysis. Midland Press Limited, Jos.

Kolade C. in Ladele, O. et al (1979) History of The Nigerian Broadcasting Corporation. Ibadan University Press. Ibadan.

Churh, H.R. (1977) Africa and the Islands (Fourth edition, revised impression) Longman. London.

Mandawari, I.M. (1999) Verbal Communication on October 13 at his office.

Mohammed, A. (1999) Verbal Communication. October 2.
INTERVIEW WITH HAFSATU AHMED ABDULWAHID

This interview was conducted in London in November 1998 by Yusuf M Adamu. I am grateful to Bala Muhammad who helped me organised the interview.

ADAMU: Could we hear a brief about your life?

ABDULWAHID (laughter) I was born at Kofar mata in Kano city on May 5, 1958. I started my primary education at Shahuci Primary School when my father was taken to Kaduna where I joined NEA in Kaduna. After four years I proceeded to Provincial Girls School where I spent at least three years. That was up to the time the school was up graded into a secondary school. I got married on January 15, 1966. Currently I have seven children who are alive while three have died.

What drew your attention to start writing?

I have been an avid reader and listener of folktales since my childhood. When I started schooling, I develop my skills of writing from the home-works and assignments we are given.

What is your first storybook?

So Aljannar Duniya. I started writing this book since my primary school days. It was about my elder sister who got married to a Libyan. When I learnt about a competition organised by the NNPC, I sent it as my entry and I was successful to have won the second position.

How do you get your inspiration?

Mostly from the happening around me. You know we still have problems of ethnicity or racial discrimination in our society particularly when it come s to marriage. That in particular inspired me to write So Aljannar Duniya.

When did you actually complete So Aljannar Duniya?

As I said earlier it was very long a go. I re-write it in 1971 and 1972 I revised it. It was that revised copy that I sent for the competition.

You have earlier said that So Aljannar Duniya was based on the life of your elder sister. Can we consider it as entirely a true story?

The story as it was in the book is a combination of her life and some personal experience. I am also married to someone that is not of the same race with me, but I have not experience many problems as my elder sister.

How do you learnt about the competition?

I read it in Gaskiya Ta Fi Kwabo.

How many books have you written so far?

I have written about nine books so far but only three were published.

Why do you write?

(Laughter) Interest. But also for one to be able to express himself for others to read.
It took you almost sixteen years to publish another novel (Yardubu) since the publication of So Aljannar Duniya. Why this long silence?

Is not that I have not been writing since that time. The problem is that of getting a publisher, it is a problem of having money to publish, a problem of having some kind of support for this kind of work.

You are married and have children. How do you combine your marital chorus with writing?

This is not a big problem. Since one is interested, the commitment is there. Nothing could stop me from writing.

Do you read other writers in Hausa or English? If yes give us an example.

I do. I read mostly classical Hausa writers like Abubakar Imam and other writers of that generation. I no longer read much now. I read English novels also mainly historical, horror and thrillers.

Who among Hausa writers impress you most?


Of course it is Abubakar Imam and the author of Tauraruwar Hamada, one Ahmad somebody. I couldn’t remember his surname.

Could it be Umar Dembo?


No it was not Umaru Dembo. His name is Ahmad some body who wrote Tauraruwar Hamada. Actually the story was about a sister of mine (now late). I read the manuscript before it was published. The author is also dead now. I also read authors like Jabiru Abdullahi the author of Na gari na kowa, the author of Jiki Magayi, and so on. For English writers, I read Rider Haggard, Catherine Gaskin, Arnold Rake and so on.

Do you write in any other language apart from Hausa?
Most of my writings are in Hausa, however I do write English Poems. We are now trying to translate all my Hausa works into English. My father is translating some into Fulfulde and Arabic.

In your first published novel, the main character Bodado is not a Hausa girl rather Fulani Why was that so?

(Laughter) May be because I myself am Fulbe. Not because I deliberately didn’t like her to be Hausa. I was trying to portray how difficult inter racial marriages were (laughs).

Do you relate to ANA or any writers Association?

Currently in Gusau where I live, I relate with some writers. Some years back I was in contact with a writers Association in Kano but things went wrong some how and that was that.

There are now many young writers both males and females. What is your opinion about the new writers?

Well, some of them are good while others are not so good. Some adapt movies. But there are some of them that I enjoy reading like Yusuf Adamu, Babinlata and one Ado Ahmad some body.

What are your main problems as an authoress?

It is not more than my inability to publish my books. Those that could help are also crying of no money. You know how things are nowadays.

What role do you think Hausa authors could play in shaping the future of Hausa society?

Well they could contribute positively if they write about our culture and about morality. You know how bad things are today. If they could do that I think things will improve.

Do you write non-fiction?

Yes I do. I have published one title about marriage. Some cultural practises are now making marriage very difficult due to economic hardship. The book was launched at the Bayero University Kano in September 19….. It was entirely about marriage problems.

Does Hausa society value literature?

Not quite! If they care, writers can be encouraged. Fortunately now we have young men and women that read and those that write (particularly about romance) but our people are not helping matters but I think they should.

What should we do?
If rich people can establish publishing outlets, it would certainly help immensely.

Do any of your children write?

Yes. Two of them write. My eldest daughter Kadiriyya does write so also my sixth child Sa’adiyya.

What kind of writing do they do? Is it fiction or newspaper articles?

They write features in newspapers and I encourage them to keep them. They might be published consequently in the future.

What is the joy of being a writer?

The joy is to see that you are able to express your mind into writing that people could read even after your death. This will say a lot about the kind of person you are.

Thank you for your time.

(Laughter) Thank you too.

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About Me

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Kano, Kano, Nigeria
Dr. Yusuf M. Adamu is a Professor of Medical Geography at the Bayero University Kano. He is a bilingual novelist, a poet, and writes for children. He is interested in photography and run a photo blog (www.hausa.aminus3.com) All the blogs he run are largely for his hobbies and not his academic interests. Hope you enjoy the blogs.