Monday, June 11, 2007

MEDIA IN NORTHERN NIGERIA

Introduction

Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa and one of the largest in terms of size. Church (1979). It came into existence in 1914 when the British colonialists amalgamated the then northern and southern protectorates. The northern protectorate falls within the domain of the Sokoto Caliphate, which fell to the British invaders in 1903. The Hausas, Fulani, and Kanuri are the larger ethnic groups. Islam is the predominant religion and Hausa language is the lingua franca in the region. Other important ethnic groups include the Nupes, Tivs, Angas, Jukuns, and Egbiras mainly in what is now known and called middle-belt of Nigeria. The major cities in northern Nigeria includes Kano, Katsina, Sokoto, Kaduna, Zaria, Gusau, Talata-Mafara, Maiduguri, Gombe, Bauchi, Funtua, Potiskum, Hadejia, Nguru, Argungu, Birnin Kebbi, Daura and Azare.

The major occupation of the northern population is farming, although Kano is a major commercial center, the largest inland port south of the Sahara. Industrial activities are also prominent in Kano and Kaduna axis. There are a good number of educational institutions notably the Universities, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Bayero University, Kano, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto, University of Maiduguri, University of Jos, University of Agriculture Makurdi, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University of Technology Bauchi, University of Technology Yola and a host of others.

Northern Nigeria has been literate for the last seven hundred years after the invention of Ajami (the use of Arabic script to write Hausa language). It is however behind southern Nigeria in western education which came to it late and was not popular for a number of reasons, which we are not going to discuss here. This may partly explain why the north is lagging behind in terms of the print media in particular.

Print Media in Northern Nigeria: Historical Background.

No newspaper or news magazine existed in northern Nigeria before the occupation and subsequent colonization of the region by the British imperial force despite its literacy British colonial rulers introduced a trilingual newspaper around 1932 called Northern Provinces News/Jaridar Nigeria Ta Arewa. /Jaridat al Nijeriya al Shimaliyya. It was 22 pages and published four times a year and sold at half a penny (sisi). (Yahaya, 1988). This newspaper or rather a periodical reports mainly new colonial policies and news items about colonial administration activities.

In January 1939, a full-pledge Hausa newspaper Gaskiya Ta Fi Kwabo was established. Its first editor was the famous Hausa writer, the late Malam Abubakar Imam. A number of reasons were forwarded as the factors that led to the establishment of Gaskiya Ta Fi Kwabo. Yahaya (1988) argued that the Second World War was partly responsible as the British feared German and other propaganda through the radio and other means. While Best, (1996) see the struggle between northerners and southerners in the political struggle in Nigeria and the letters misrepresentation of the former as partly responsible. Whatever the case Yahaya (1988) explained that Gaskiya Ta Fi Kwabo was intended to be distributed to all northern provinces and serve as enlightenment medium and opinion moulder. It reported local, national and international news to its readers.

Around 1941, full-out sheets in Ajami form of written Hausa were introduced for those who could not read in the Roman Script. It was called `Yar Gaskiya (Ajami News Sheets). Suda another Hausa newspaper hit the stand in 1941. It was more or less a war propaganda newspaper and was published once every two weeks. (Yahaya, 1988) 15,000 copies were produced and distributed free of charge to all areas where Gaskiya Ta Fi Kwabo. was distributed and sold.

In 1954, the North Regional Literature Agency (NORLA) was established. Consequently, in addition to Gaskiya Ta Fi Kwabo, some provincial newspapers were established as shown in table 1 below.

Table 1
-------------------------------------------------------------------
Newspaper Province Language
------------------------------------------------------------------
Zaruma Sokoto Hausa
Himma Katsina Hausa
Gamzaki Plateau Hausa
Zumunta Bauchi Hausa
Bazazzaga Zaria Hausa
Haske Niger Hausa
Ardo Adamawa Hausa/Fulfulde
AlBishir Borno Hausa/Kanuri
Labaran Kano/Sodangi Kano Hausa
-------------------------------------------------------------------
Source: Yahaya, I.Y. (1988)

All these newspapers were published twice every month. Other papers published at that time include Alfijir (mainly a Hausa version of The World), Jakadiya, Aboki, and Majalisarku.

Newspapers and News Magazines in Northern Nigeria After NORLA

NORLA was subsequently closed down in 1959. Only Gaskiya Ta Fi Kwabo, survived. However a number of other Hausa and English newspapers and magazine emerged. Some are owned by State, Regional or Federal governments while others were privately owned. The Nigerian Citizen was started around 1960 and was replaced in 1965, by the New Nigerian Newspapers.

Some of the papers that emerged included Daily Mail, Morning Post, Sunday Post, Maganar Kano, `Yancin Dan Adam, Amana, Maishela, Albishir, Alfijir, Zuma, Zaruma, Dillaliya, Bagaruwa, Jakadiyar Muslunci, Jakadiyar UNESCO, Sha Kallo, Daily Comet, Alkalami, Fitila, The Analyst, Triumph, Sunday Triumph, Zamani, The Nigerian Standard, The Voice, The Path, Trumpeter, The Democrat, Citizens, Nasiha, A Yau, Al-Mizan, Al-Ahram, Today, Weekly Trust, Just, Hotline, Rana, Telex, Kakaki, The Pointer, Al-Tajdid, Abuja newsweek, Nigerian Outlook, The Reporter, Mujahidah, The Pen, FIM, Tauraruwa, Taskira, Lokaci and many others. Most of these newspapers and magazine have ceased to exist.

In table 2 below, we indicate the newspapers that exist today, their language, place of publication and ownership.
Paper
Language
Place
Ownership
Frequency
Category
New Nigerian
English
Kaduna
Federal Government
Daily
News
New Nigerian Weekly
English
Kaduna
Federal Government
Weekly
News
New Nigerian On Sunday
English
Kaduna
Federal Government
Weekly
News
Gaskiya Ta Fi Kwabo
Hausa
Kaduna
Federal Government
Three times a week
News
The Triumph
English
Kano
Kano State Government
Daily
News
Weekend Triumph
English
Kano
Kano State Government
Weekly
News
Sunday Triumph
English
Kano
Kano State Government
Weekly
News
Albishir
Hausa
Kano
Kano State Government
Weekly
News
Alfijir
Hausa/Ajami
Kano
Kano State Government
Weekly
News
The Path
English
Sokoto
Sokoto State Government
Weekly
News
The Nigerian Standard
English
Jos
Plateau State Government

News
The Voice
English
Makurdi
Benue State Government

News
The Graphics
English
Lokoja
Kogi State Government

News
Legacy
English
Gusau
Private
Weekly
News
Nassarawa Newsday
English
Gombe
Private

News
Weekly Scope
English
Yola
Private?

News
Today
English
Kaduna
Private

News
A Yau
Hausa
Kaduna
Private
Weekly
News
Al-Ahram
Hausa
Kano
Private
Weekly
News
Weekly Trust
English
Abuja
Private
Weekly
News
Al-Mizan
Hausa
Zaria
Private
Weekly
News/Religious
Al-Tajdid
Hausa
Kano
Private
Weekly
News/Religious
Kakaki
Hausa
Bauchi
Bauchi State Government
Weekly
News
The Pointer
English
Zaria
Private
Weekly
News/Religious
The Herald
English
Ilorin
Kwara State Government
Daily
News
Source: Various



Table 3 gives a list of some magazines

Magazine
Language
Place
Ownership
Frequency
Category
Hotline
English
Kaduna
Private
Monthly
News
Crystal
English
Abuja
Private
Monthly
News
Just
English
Kaduna
Private

News
Nigerian Outlook
English
Kano
Private
Weekly
News
Rana
Hausa
Kaduna
Private
Monthly
News
Abuja Newsweek
English
Kaduna
Private
Monthly
News
FIM
Hausa
Kaduna
Private
Quarterly
Entertainment
Tauraruwa
Hausa
Kano
Private
Quarterly
Entertainment
Zuma
Hausa
Zaria
Private

News
Mujahida
Hausa
Zaria
Private
Monthly
New/Religious
Garkuwa
Hausa
Sokoto
Private
Quarterly
News/Entertainment
Mumtaz
Hausa
Kano
Private
Quarterly
News/Entertainment
Nishadi
Hausa
Kano
Private

Entertainment
Some major existing Hausa Newspapers and Magazines
Table 4







Newspapers

Newspaper Frequency

Gaskiya Ta Fi Kwabo Three time a week
A Yau Weekly
Al-Ahram Weekly
Albishir Weekly
Alfijir Weekly
Al-Mizan Weekly
Garkuwa Weekly
Dillaliya Weekly
Jagora Weekly

Table 5
Magazines
Newspaper Frequency
FIM Quarterly
Rana Monthly
Tauraruwa Quarterly
Zuma Monthly
Garkuwa Monthly
Mumtaz Quarterly
Nishadi Quarterly
Shirin Fim Quarterly



Broadcast Media in the northern Nigeria
Broadcasting in Nigeria started as far back as 1924 Kolade (1979). By 1944 broadcasting stations were established in Kano and six years after stations were opened at some towns in northern Nigeria, which are Katsina, Zaria, Sokoto, Jos, and Ilorin. Ladele (1979). By 1957 Nigerian Broadcasting Corporation was established. It replaced its predecessor which lasted for six years.

After independence and its aftermath, several radio and television stations were established by the then State Governments. By 1977 all the Television stations in the states (both north and South) were taken over by the Federal Military Government under General Obasanjo to form the National Television Authority (NTA).

For the northern region, the establishment of Northern Nigeria Broadcasting Corporation with its headquarters in Kaduna in 1962 gave birth to a more serious and sustainable broadcasting service. Thus Radio Television Kaduna was born. Radio Television Kaduna was latter to be Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria Kaduna (being one of the four- Lagos, Ibadan and Enugu).

The birth of Radio Nigeria Kaduna pioneered radio broadcast in northern Nigeria. The station has millions of listeners and it is effectively used by the State and other vested interest. It is the major Hausa radiobroadcast station in the world. Its broadcast is mainly in Hausa with some insert of programmes in Fulfulde, Kanuri, and English. It has a very big and rich audio library and has greatly influenced and still influencing happenings in northern Nigeria and other Hausa speaking areas of West Africa.
The National Broadcasting Commission

The National Broadcasting Commission (NBC) is the nation’s body that regulate and monitor the broadcast media. It was established in 1992 by decree 38 of 1992 as amended by decree 55 of 1999. It is empowered among other things to regulate, monitor and control broadcasting in Nigeria. It is also responsible for issuing licenses for the establishment of all broadcast outfits in the country. It has seven zonal offices four of which fall within northern Nigeria. Thus we have

Abuja Zone comprising of The Federal capital territory, Kaduna, Kogi, Kwara and Niger States.

Kano Zone comprising of Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Sokoto and Zamfara States

Jos Zone comprising of Plateau, Nassarawa, Adamawa, Taraba, and Benue States.

Then

Maiduguri Zone comprising of Borno, Yobe, Bauchi, Jigawa and Gombe States.

Based on this zonal classification we will provide the distribution of Radio, Television and Cables Satellite stations in the north.

Zonal Distribution of Radio Stations by ownership

Table 6
---------------------------------------------------------
Zone Ownership Number
---------------------------------------------------------

Kano Federal 0
State 6
Private 0
Abuja Federal 2
State 6
Private 1
Jos Federal 0
State 8
Private 0
Maiduguri Federal 0
State 6
Private 0
Total
-------------------------------------------------------------------
Source: Monitoring & Operation Directorate 1999

Zonal Distribution Television Stations by Ownership
Table 7

---------------------------------------------------------------------
Zone Ownership Number
--------------------------------------------------------------------
Kano Federal 3
State 3
Private 0
Abuja Federal 5
State 2
Private 1
Jos Federal 5
State 4
Private 0
Maiduguri Federal 2
State 4
Private 0
Total
-------------------------------------------------------------------
Source: Monitoring & Operation Directorate 1999


Zonal Distribution of Cable Stations

Table 8

Zone Number
----------------------------------
Kano 5
Abuja 4
Jos 3
Maiduguri 3
------------------------------------
Total
--------------------------------------
Source: Monitoring & Operation Directorate 1999







Broadcast hours

Table 9
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Zone Daily Hours Weekly Channels
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kano Radio- 94 658 39
Television 45 241
Cable 120 648

Abuja Radio 122 856 22
Television 61.30 502.30
Cable 144 1008
Jos Radio 124.34 830.58 26
Television 44 142
Cable 264 1848

Maiduguri Radio 102.30 719.30 21
Television 34.30 259
Cable 216 1512
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total
Source: Monitoring & Operation Directorate 1999



There are 39 cable stations in Nigeria, all of which are privately owned.


Sample Programmes Coverage
A number of programmes are aired in the Radio and Television Stations most of which are government oriented. Among the common programmes aired are
Local News
National/International News
Drama
Greetings
Documentary
Discussions
Interviews
Children Programmes
Political Programmes
Women Programmes
Youth Programmes
Arts and Literature
Agricultural Extension
Health Matters
Enlightenment Programmes
Public Announcements
Advertisement

List of Some Radio Stations where Hausa Broadcast is over 70% of the airtime
Table 10

Station
Location
Ownership
Radio Kano
Kano
Kano State Government
Radio Zamfara
Gusau
Zamfara State Government
Radio Jigawa
Dutse
Jigawa State Government
Rima Radio
Sokoto
Sokoto State Government
Radio-Nigeria Kaduna
Kaduna
Federal Government
Kaduna State Radio
Kaduna
Kaduna State Government
Radio Katsina
Katsina
Katsina State Government
Radio Bauchi
Bauchi
Bauchi State Government

Radio Nassarawa
Gombe
Nassarawa State Government

Yobe Radio
Damaturu
Yobe State Government
Source: VariousTelevision Stations

Table 11
Some T.V. Houses with Hausa Programmes

Station
Location
Ownership
NTA Kano
Kano
Federal
CTV Kano
Kano
State
NTA Sokoto
Sokoto
Federal
NTA Maiduguri
Maiduguri
Federal
NTA Kaduna
Kaduna
Federal
DTV Kaduna
Kaduna
Private
NTA Katsina
Katsina
Federal
KTTV Katsina
Katsina
State
NTA Bauchi
Bauchi
Federal
NTA Yola
Yola
Federal




Source: Various

International Hausa Broadcast
Hausa people are naturally good listeners, thus they enjoy and patronise radio stations, locally, nationally and internationally. It can be conveniently argued that radio information is the major source of information among Hausa populace particularly those that are not literate or semi-literate. The radio has over the years provided all the necessary news Hausa people need. In fact, radio has greatly improved Hausa people knowledge on current affairs that a common man in Hausa society can comment on international affairs. Thus International Broadcast in Hausa is crucial in socio-political mobilisation of the largest language group in West Africa. Below in table 12 is a list of some international Hausa Broadcast Stations.


Table 12
LIST OF SOME INTERNATIONAL HAUSA BROADCASTS STATIONS
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Station Country of Broadcast
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Sashen Hausa
BBC London
Bush House London. UNITED KINGDOM

Sashen Hausa
Muryar Jama’ar Jamus
Duetch Velle
Federal Republic of Germany FED. REPUBLIC OF GERMANY

Sashen Hausa
Voice of America
Washington DC UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

Sashen Hausa
Radio Beijing International
Beijing
China PEOPLES REPUBLIC OF CHINA

Sashen Hausa
Radio Alkahira
Cairo
Egypt. ARAB REPUBLIC OF EGYPT


Sashen Hausa
Radio Tehran
Islamic Republic of Iran
Iran ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF IRAN

Sashen Hausa
*Radio Ghana
Accra
Ghana REPUBLIC OF GHANA


Voice of Nigeria
Abuja
Nigeria. FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF NIGERIA

*Radio Niger
Niger Republic
Niger. REPUBLIC DU NIGER

Sashen Hausa
Radio Moscow
Moscow
Russia** RUSSIAN REPUBLIC
Source: Various

*Not sure of the name
** I think it is no longer in operation

Hausa Home Videos

The history of Hausa home videos can be traced to the earlier efforts by some individuals notably Sani Lamma, Hamisu Gurgu, Sidiya Bakar Indiya in the early 1980s in Kano (Mandawari, 1999). These individuals were avid views of cinema programmes particularly Indian and Western movies. They personally made earlier attempts to produce home videos (not for sale). In the mid 1980s some drama clubs that have been active at stage drama began to think of producing home videos. These drama groups were also active in Television Soap opera. Some of their dramas were produced and aired by Nigerian Television Authority Kano and CTV 67 (The State owned Television Station). They include:

Tumbin Giwa Drama Group
Gyaranya Drama Group
Jigon Hausa Drama Group
In 1990, Ibrahim Mandawari then president of Tumbin Giwa Drama Group was encouraged and supported by some of his members notably Auwalu Marshall, Aminu Hassan Yakasai and Adamu Mohammed to produce a home video. Consequently they produced a two-hour video programme titled TURMIN DANYA. In 1992, they produced another television opera titled CIN AMANA. This programme was aired at the Katsina State Television in thirty episodes. It was until 1993 that Tumbin Giwa made its debut with the production of GIMBIYA FATIMA (3 tapes). Jigon Hausa followed suite with MUNKAR in the same year.

Around the same period some individuals made efforts and made the first independent home video production. These pioneers are Ado Ahmad Gidan Dabino (IN DA SO DA KAUNA- adapted from his best selling Hausa novel), Bala Anas Babinlata (TSUNTSU MAI WAYO- also from his Hausa novel with same title). Consequently, individual producers began to emerge producing one video film after another. It was from 1998 that the home video business in Kano became well established that today it has produced celebrities. Hausa home videos are past replacing Indian, American and Nigerian (English home videos). Moreover, cinemas are also affected by this surge that most of the cinemas today show Hausa home Videos to their customers. Today, an average of three home videos are released every month.
The themes of these home videos range from romance, marriage, family life, crime, social problems, corruption, and some politics. The films use modern and traditional instruments for their music (perhaps to replace those missed from Indian films).

One thing of note here is that Kano home video industry is an off short of its popular literature movement. Most of the earlier home videos were adaptations of earlier novels (example In Da So Da kauna. Tsuntsu Mai Wayo, Ki Yarda da Ni, Muguwar Kishiya, Bakandamiyar Rikicin Duniya, Kwabon masoyi, Su ma `ya`ya ne, Kara da kiyashi, Sa’adatu sa’ar mata, and so on.) Some of the producers and directors are also writers, examples are Ado Ahmad Gidan Dabino, Bala Anas Babin lata, Dan’azimi Baba, Aminu Hassan Yakasai, Adamu Muhammed, and so on).

Just as the popular books raise many social questions and controversies, the home videos are also doing the same. The industry is dominated by youth so the level of modernization is great. This new trend is a fertile area of research.

Hausa home video industry has also sprung in other major cities of northern Nigeria notably, Kaduna, Katsina, Gusau, Sokoto, Zaria, and Gombe). Yet Kano leads the industry and is seen by many as the northern Nigerian Hollywood christened Kallywood. The industry has led to the emergence of entertainment magazines notable FIM magazine published in Kaduna and Tauraruwa published in Kano. There are indications that some new magazines covering the home video industry are likely to emerge in Sokoto, Kano and Kaduna. The industry is employing a large number of youth.

Name and Addresses of the major home videos producers in Kano

Ado Ahmad Gidan Dabino
Gidan Dabino Video Productions
570, Sabon Titin Mandawari
Kano.
Tel: 064-636339

Ibrahim Muhammad Mandawari
Mandawari Enterprises
Ibrahim Taiwo Road
Kano
Tel: 064-640310

Adamu Muhammad
Kwabon Masoyi Productions
Gidan Umma Bayero
Kano.

Dan-azimi Baba Cediyar `Yangurasa
R.K. Studios
14, Sabon Titin Mandawari
Kano.

Abdulkarim Muhammad
FILAPS
Court Road
Kano.

Inuwa Hassan
Mu’azzart International
`Yankaba Quarters
Kano.

Umar Bawa Dukku
Dukku Productions
No. 3 Dandago Quarters
Kano-City.
Tel: 064-635071

Hamisu Lamido
Iyan Tama Multi-Media
44, Sabon Titin Mandawari
Kano.
Tel: 064-632280

Auwal Muhammad Sabo
Sarauniya Production
Gwammaja Quarters,
Kano.

Mansur Sherif Abba
Ibrahimawa Productions
485, Dandago Quarters
Kano.

Aminu Sherif
Ummi Productions
`Yankaba Quarters
Kano.

Hajin Fafa
Hajin Fafa Ventures
Gidan Atiku
Sabon Titin Mandawari
Kano.

Kabiru Na-kwango
Dabo Film Production
Gwammaja Quarters
Kano.


List of Cinemas in Kano Metropolis

El-Dorado Cinema
Farida Cinema
Lale Cinema
Marhaba Cinema
Orion Cinema
Plaza Cinema
Queens Cinema
Sani Abacha Youth Centre Cinema.
Wapa Cinema


List of major home video distributors

Alhaji Hassan Adamu
Bayan Bata
Kano.

Isma’il Idris
Bayan Bata
Kano.

Alhaji Musa Mai Kaset
Malam Kato Square
Kano.

Muhammad Lawan Kalarawi
Sabuwar Kasuwa
Kofar Wambai
Kano.

Alhaji Mustapha Muhammad
Club Road
Kano.

Danlami Sani
KRODA
Kano.


REFERENCES

Yahaya, I.Y. (1988) Hausa A Rubuce, Northern Nigeria Publishing Company, Zaria

Best, C. (1996) Press Development in Nigeria, A Comparative Analysis. Midland Press Limited, Jos.

Kolade C. in Ladele, O. et al (1979) History of The Nigerian Broadcasting Corporation. Ibadan University Press. Ibadan.

Churh, H.R. (1977) Africa and the Islands (Fourth edition, revised impression) Longman. London.

Mandawari, I.M. (1999) Verbal Communication on October 13 at his office.

Mohammed, A. (1999) Verbal Communication. October 2.

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Dr. Yusuf M. Adamu is a Professor of Medical Geography at the Bayero University Kano. He is a bilingual novelist, a poet, and writes for children. He is interested in photography and run a photo blog (www.hausa.aminus3.com) All the blogs he run are largely for his hobbies and not his academic interests. Hope you enjoy the blogs.