Sunday, October 19, 2008

TAWAYEN HAUSAWA A BRAZIL



Na rubuta wannan makala ne tun wajen 1999, kuma an taba bugata a jaridar Al-Mizan

Kusan shekaru biyu da suka wuce wani abokin aikina a Jami’ar Bayero ta Kano watau Malam Bala Muhammad wanda a halin yanzu yake aiki sashen Hausa na BBC London ya taba ce mani ai Hausawa Musulmi da aka kama aka kai nahiyar Amurka lokacin cinikin bayi sun taba yin tawaye bayan da suka ji labarin cewa an soma jihadi a kasar Hausa. Tun lokacin sai na yi sha’awar ya gabatar da makala akai domin na tabbata mutane da yawa ba su taba jin wannan labari ba. Allah dai bai sa an sami yin haka ba.

Har na manta da abin sai kwatsam ranar nan ina karanta wani CD a na’ura mai kwakwalwa mai suna Encarta Africana sai kawai na ga bayanin a ciki. Sai na yi murna na kuma godewa Allah. Kenan da rabon sauran `yan uwa su karanta wannan labari. Mun sadu da Danjuma Katsina nake ba shi labari, shi ma sai abin ya burge shi sosai, shi ne na ce masa zan rubuto maku labarin domin duka mu amfana.

Wannan bayani da zan baku wani Joao Jose Reis ya rubuta kuma Encarta Africana suka samar da shi. Ni abib da kawai zan yi shi ne kawo maku bayanin da harshen Hausa. A cikin karni na goma sha tara an kai bayi daga Afirka ta yamma kasar Barazil domin yin bauta a gonakin rake. A cikin bayin da aka kai mafi yawanci Hausawa ne da kuma Yarbawa wa]anda mafi yawancinsu Musulmi ne. A kwai kuma Nufawa da Fulani da kuma Bare-bari sai dai yawansu bai kai na Hausawa da Yarbawan ba.

Wannan birni na Bahia kusan shi ne kan gaba wurin cinikin bayi musamman wadanda aka kawo daga yammacin Afirka. Akalla an kai bayi 354,100 daga 1791-1850 mafi yawancinsu Musulmi ne.

Bayi musulmi a Barazil ana kiransu male daga kalmar imale ta harshen Yarbanci saboda daga shekarun 1820-1830 Yarbawa Musulmi sun fi yawa a bayin dake Bahia. Akwai kwararan dalilai da ke nuna cewa Musulmi Hausawa da Yarbawa sun yi manyan bore guda biyu sun kuma kulla shirye-shiryen yin tawaye kwarara biyu. An kuma hakikance da cewa suna da hannu a bore fiye da ashirin da aka yi a yankin a kashin farkoana karni na goma sha tara.

A watan Mayu na 1807 Hausawa sun shirya wani gagarumin bore wanda masu bincike suka ce shiri ne da ya nuna kwarewa domin an tsara ne hawa-hawa na shugabanci. Ma’ana akwai jerin shugabanni da za su aiwatar da shirin a mataki-mataki. An shirya ne cewa za su kewaye birnin Salvador su hana shiga balle fita. Ta haka, sai su hana shigar da kuma samar da abinci a garin har na tsawon lokaci. Idan mutanen garin suka galabaita, sai su nemi gudunmuwar Musulmi bayi dake bangaren yammacin yankin Pernambuco ta haka sai su kafa tasu daular (tun da sun yanke tsammanin komawa gida). Sun shirya cewa za su kame dukan coci-cocin birnin su rusa dukan gumakan su kuma kona na konawa a tsakiyar birnin. Sun kuma shirya yin kaca-kaca da fararen fatar birnin (tunda su ne sanadin shigar su wannan hali) su kuma bautar da sauran. Cikin rashin sa’a sai a ka samu labarin ya bulla Turawan Mulkin Mallaka suka ji, saboda haka abin bai yi nasara ba.

A shekarar 1814 kuma sai suka sake yunkurawa. A wannan karon mafi yawancin wa]anda suka yi boren bayi ne `yan su, tare da taimakon wasu gudaddun bayi dake zaune a manyan birane da kuma `yantattun bayi. Sun kai farmake a wasu kauyuka dake bias hanya a kokarinsu na isa manyan gonakin rake da zummar kai boren ga bayin da ke wa]annan wurare. Sun kasha fiye da mutane hamsin. An kuma gwabza da su sai da aka kawo rundunonin soji sannan aka ci karfinsu. Bincike ya tabbatr da cewa jagororin wannan bore Hausawa ne musulmi da kuma Yarbawa da Nufawa da Bare-bari `yan kalilan. An bayyana cewa jagaban wannan bore sunansa Malomi wanda aka ce limami ne amma an amince da cewa kalmar ta samo asali ne daga kalmar Hausa ta Malam. Babban abin da ya kara tabbatar da cewa Hausawa ne suke ta shirya ire-iren wadannan bore shine takardun da aka kwace daga hannayensu masu rubutun arabiyya kila ma da ajami. Bayan watanni uku kuma sai Hausawa Musulmi suka kara shirya wani bore na shirya da taimakon wasu gudaddun bayi a kewayen birnin Salvado. An gano cewa wannan Limamin dai da ya shirya wa]ancan boren ne ya kara shirya wannan. An ce al’umomin Indiyawa da sauran `yan Afirka da bakaken fata sun bada goyon baya ga boren da Malami ke shiryawa.
Cikin rashin sa’a, daga baya gwamnati ta ci karfinsu.

To amma sai bayan shekaru goma sannan wani babban bore ya balle. Wannan tawaye da Hausawa suka yi ranar 25 ga watan Janairu 1835 (wanda ya dace da ranar 27 ga watan Ramadan na hijirar manzon Allah S.A.W ta 1250-daren laylatul Kadari kenan) ana yi masa lakabi da Tawayen Malamai a inda Hausawa 600 suka fi fito-na-fito da farare `yan mulkin mallaka. A wannan karon battar ne Hausawa 70 suka yi shahada. Wasu na kyautata zaton cewa wannan tawaye da Hausawa da sauran Musulmi ke yi kamar isar da kokarin Jaddada Musulunci da ake yi a kasar Hausa a lokacin (watau Jihadin Shaihu Usmanu Danfodiyo). Kodayake wasu na ganin ba haka ba ne, ana ganin cewa Jihadin dai ya yi tasiri a dukan tawayen da Musulmi suka yi koda kuwa ba su da niyyar kafa daular muslunci a lokacin, ana iya ganin cewa sun yi tawayen ne domin nemarwa kansu `yancin yin bauta da kuma `yanci daga bauta.

Gwamnatotocin fararen fata sai suka tashi haikan suka tarwatsa Musulmi suka kuma yi wa hudu daga cikin jagororin kisan gilla. Saura kuma aka ci gaba da azabtar da su da wasu kuma aka kulle su. Sauran bayin da aka `yanta kuma aka dawo da su Afirka. Daga nan duk Musulmin da aka gani musamman ma da wata takarda ta larabci sai a yi zargin dan tawaye ne. Aka kafa muyagun dokoki na kara gallazawa bayi har ma da hukunci kisa.

Wannan ya nuna kenan cewa duk inda aka kai Musulmi bauta ta an ce kada a zauna lafiya kenan. Wannan kuwa ba komai ya kawo shi ba illa kasancewar Musulmi masu ilmi kuma wayayyu. To amm me za mu iya koya daga wannan bayani na Joao? Na barku ku tattauna. Allah Ya sa mu dace amin.


2 comments:

sarwa said...

Salamu alaikum Dr. Yusuf M. Adamu.
Ina mai godiya ga Allah da yasa na karanta wannan labari, kuma Allah ya karama albarka. Wannan shine tarihinda muke bukatar akoyamunan tun daga primary, ba tarihin yan mulkin mallakaba.

Don Allah Dr ga email dina nan a rika turomin irin wadannan kasidu.

thanks,
Saidu Yusuf Aliero,
Student Masters Islamic, Banking Finance and Management, Loughborough Uni. UK.
sarmaqanda@yahoo.com

Anonymous said...

Thanks :)
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Kano, Kano, Nigeria
Dr. Yusuf M. Adamu is a Professor of Medical Geography at the Bayero University Kano. He is a bilingual novelist, a poet, and writes for children. He is interested in photography and run a photo blog (www.hausa.aminus3.com) All the blogs he run are largely for his hobbies and not his academic interests. Hope you enjoy the blogs.